Reduced activation energies of bulk Bi2Sr2-xInxCaCu2O8+δ
Indium doping on superconducting bulk Bi2Sr2-xInxCaCu2O8+δ was found to be successful for low concentrations but can result to phase decomposition and suppressed superconductivity in high indium concentration. Impurities and secondary phases affect the superconductivity as it impede superconducting transitions and reduce activation energy. The effect on indium doping on the activation energy is correlated with phase purity, granularity and suppressed superconductivity. Reduced activation energy suggests that vortices can flow more easily in high indium doped samples through thermally activated flux flow.